稿件编号:20200302
闵小莹,熊康宁,申小云,杭红涛,池永宽,张仕豪.喀斯特石漠化地区植物对干旱胁迫的适应性研究进展[J].世界林业研究,2020,33(3):7~12
喀斯特石漠化地区植物对干旱胁迫的适应性研究进展
Research Progress of Plant Adaptability to Drought Stress in Karst Rocky Desertification Area
投稿时间:2020-01-15  修订日期:2020-03-17
DOI:10.13348/j.cnki.sjlyyj.2020.0026.y
中文关键词:  干旱胁迫|植物抗旱性|生态适应性|喀斯特石漠化地区
英文关键词:drought stress|plant drought resistance|ecological adaptability|karst rocky desertification area
基金项目:国家自然基金项目“普氏原羚对环境硒胁迫的响应机制”(41671041);国家“十三五”重点研发计划课题“喀斯特高原石漠化综合治理生态产业模式与技术集成示范”(2016YFC0502607);贵州省科技计划项目(课题)“喀斯特石漠化石生耐旱草本植物的适生机理及在生态修复中的应用”(黔科合基础[2017]1119号);贵州省科技计划项目(课题)“喀斯特石漠化环境治理下特色经济饲草植物优化建植及生态畜牧关键技术研究”(黔科合支撑[2019]2356号)。
作者单位E-mail
闵小莹 贵州师范大学喀斯特研究院, 贵州省喀斯特山地生态环境国家重点实验室培育基地, 贵阳 550001  
熊康宁 贵州师范大学喀斯特研究院, 贵州省喀斯特山地生态环境国家重点实验室培育基地, 贵阳 550001  
申小云 贵州师范大学喀斯特研究院, 贵州省喀斯特山地生态环境国家重点实验室培育基地, 贵阳 550001
西南科技大学生命科学与工程学院, 四川绵阳 621010
中国西南世界银行扶贫项目贵州办公室, 贵阳 550004 
bijieshenxy@163.com 
杭红涛 贵州师范大学喀斯特研究院, 贵州省喀斯特山地生态环境国家重点实验室培育基地, 贵阳 550001  
池永宽 贵州师范大学喀斯特研究院, 贵州省喀斯特山地生态环境国家重点实验室培育基地, 贵阳 550001  
张仕豪 贵州师范大学喀斯特研究院, 贵州省喀斯特山地生态环境国家重点实验室培育基地, 贵阳 550001  
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中文摘要:
      喀斯特石漠化地区复杂的人类活动和特殊的地上与地下二元结构水文系统以及碳酸岩丰富的节理裂隙导致了土壤水分渗漏强烈,地表干旱缺水,临时性干旱严重,使该区植物普遍遭受干旱胁迫,影响植物的生长与发育。文中通过综述干旱胁迫对喀斯特地区植物的影响,从植物形态特征、光合作用、渗透调节物质和抗氧化酶系统等方面分析植物应对干旱胁迫的机理机制,得出喀斯特地区植物一般具有发达的叶片表皮毛、较厚的角质层、强壮发达的根系特征并通过叶片的气孔调节应对干旱。此外,植物体通过积累脯氨酸、可溶性糖等渗透调节物质,增强抗氧化酶系统的活性来抗旱。提出通过抗旱锻炼、矿质肥料、化学和微生物调控以及抗旱品种的选育等途径来提高植物的抗旱性。建议今后的研究应加强模拟实验与野外验证实验相结合、分析植物对多种逆境的交叉响应,综合分析生长生理生态基因等特征,建立符合当地植物的抗旱评价体系,以及研究喀斯特和非喀斯特环境中植物对干旱胁迫适应的差异性来分析植物对干旱胁迫适应的机理机制,以期为深入研究喀斯特石漠化地区植物的抗旱性能提供参考,并为植被恢复及物种选择提供支持。
英文摘要:
      The complex human activities, special dual aboveground and underground structure hydrological system and the rich joints and fissures with carbonatite in karst rocky desertification area lead to the strong soil water leakage, the dry surface due to water shortage, and the serious temporary drought, which in turn makes the plants in this area generally suffer from drought stress and thus affects the growth and development of plants. This paper reviews the effects of drought stress on plants in karst area, and analyzes the mechanism of plant response to drought stress in terms of plant morphological characteristics, photosynthesis, osmoregulation substances and antioxidant enzyme system. It is concluded that the plants in karst area are generally characterized by developed leaf epidermis, thick cuticle, strong and developed root system, and drought resistance through the stomatal regulation of leaves. In addition, the plants can resist drought by accumulating proline, soluble sugar and other osmoregulation substances and enhancing the activity of antioxidant enzyme system. It is then proposed to improve the drought resistance of plants by means of drought resistance training, mineral fertilizer, chemical and microbial regulation and selection of drought resistant varieties. It is suggested that the future research in this regard should strengthen the combination of simulation experiment and field verification experiment, analyze the cross response of plants to various adversities, comprehensively analyze the characteristics of growth physiological and ecological genes, establish the evaluation system of plant drought resistance in line with the specific condition of regions, and describe the mechanism of plant adaptation to drought stress by studying the differences of plants in their adaptation to drought stress in karst and non-karst environments, in order to provide the references for further study of drought resistance of plants in karst rocky desertification area, and also the theoretical support for vegetation restoration and species selection there.
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